Aeronautics

New Video: Remote ID for Commercial UAS – What is it, How does it work, and Why does it matter?

Summary

Vigilant Aerospace Methods’ CEO Kraettli Epperson not too long ago offered a webinar titled “Distant ID for Business UAS: What’s it, How does it work, and Why does it matter?” “Distant ID issues, initially, as a nationwide safety and public […]

Remote ID - Intro to Vigilant Aerospace Systems


Vigilant Aerospace Methods’ CEO Kraettli Epperson not too long ago offered a webinar titled “Distant ID for Business UAS: What’s it, How does it work, and Why does it matter?”

“Distant ID issues, initially, as a nationwide safety and public security situation. The thought behind Distant ID as a coverage particularly is that would supply stay drone monitoring in order that Public Security officers can know {that a} drone is in a selected location, determine who’s working that drone if they should determine an operator in an emergency.”
– Kraettli Epperson, CEO, Vigilant Aerospace Methods

Within the half-hour webinar, hosted by the UAS Cluster Initiative, Epperson addressed a number of important questions on distant identification of unmanned plane techniques, together with:

  • What’s Distant ID?
  • Why does Distant ID matter to business drone operators?
  • What’s the present standing of Distant ID laws and sure technical business necessities?
  • What is going to the adoption of Distant ID expertise imply for the long run improvement of the business?


For many who have been unable to attend, the united statesCluster Initiative has graciously made a recording of this webinar accessible on-line.

Watch the total webinar presentation (28 minutes & 15 seconds):

Distant ID for Business UAS – What’s it, How does it work, & Why does it matter?

From the video:

Introduction

Welcome to the united statesCluster Initiative webinar collection. My identify is Amanda Radovic. I’m the Program Supervisor for the united statesCluster Initiative.

On our display is our speaker at the moment, Kraettli Epperson. Right this moment’s matter is Distant ID. What’s it? Why is it vital?

So, we’re going to take a couple of half an hour at the moment to discover this vital matter that has grow to be particularly related in UAS at the moment.

Our speaker at the moment is an skilled within the subject. Kraettli Epperson is the CEO and founding father of Vigilant Aerospace Methods. They supply airspace administration and autonomous detect-and-avoid software program for unmanned plane primarily based on a patent solely licensed from NASA.

Mr. Epperson has a 20-year profession as a serial entrepreneur and investor in expertise startups in each the US and Europe. He’s a frequent skilled speaker at main UAS business conferences reminiscent of InterDrone , Xponential, the united statesSummit and Expo and extra addressing subjects reminiscent of unmanned plane detect-and-avoid and UAS flight security and airspace administration techniques for business operators, fleet managers, and unmanned airfields.

Kraettli can be the co-author, with NASA Sr. Analysis Engineer Ricardo Arteaga, of a number of business analysis papers on autonomous techniques and can be an FAA licensed Half 107 distant pilot.

As we get began this might be a quick 30-minute webinar to introduce you to Distant ID and Kraettli, with that, we welcome you and respect you sharing this matter with us at the moment and are fascinated by studying extra about why Distant ID is so vital at the moment.

“The explanation that Distant ID is so crucial is that it permits a de-escalation of that state of affairs rapidly by making a cellphone name reasonably than making an attempt to, for instance, disable a #drone remotely, which will be tough & harmful.”
– Kraettli Epperson

Kraettli: I actually respect the gracious introduction Amanda. That offers all people background. I’m Kraettli Epperson. I’m going to be speaking very briefly about Distant ID for business unmanned plane techniques. What’s it? How does it work, and why does it matter?

Remote ID - Intro to Vigilant Aerospace Systems

Simply to provide a bit little bit of background to begin with. Our firm Vigilant Aerospace Methods supplies computerized detect-and-avoid techniques and airspace administration techniques each for drones and for droneports or fleets, mounted places or cellular places, which can be enabling superior unmanned plane operations. That is all primarily based on a NASA patent and we do work carefully with NASA Armstrong out in California.

We’re headquartered in Oklahoma Metropolis. My identify is Kraettli Epperson. I’m a software program entrepreneur. I’m a Half 107 operator and in addition a member of the ASTM F38 committee, which is a nationwide and worldwide committee that’s serving to to put in writing requirements proper now for the operation of unmanned plane. That’ll be vital as I discuss among the progress of Distant ID within the business at the moment.

I’ve additionally served on the NASA UTM sense-and-avoid/detection-avoid working group, which has been an effective way to make sure that we’re concerned and conscious of the event of the entire protocols round UTM, significantly for deconfliction.

Right here’s a few photographs. The one on the backside might be of essentially the most curiosity, which is what the show display appears like while you use our software program.

What’s Distant ID?

What is Remote ID? [03:21] Distant ID after we use that time period is each a regulation and a expertise. As a technical perform, Distant ID is the power to radio broadcast or replace, through a community connection, the flight location of a selected drone to a central database, server or system that enables that drone to be tracked and permits the ID and the proprietor or operator of that drone to be recognized.

At a extremely fundamental degree, that’s the technical perform and what it supplies actually is the concept of a license plate for unmanned plane and I’ll speak a bit bit about why that’s so vital.

As a regulation, after we say Distant ID as a regulation, it’s a regulatory requirement and a course of by which legislation enforcement or Public Security or different licensed personnel can rapidly determine the registered operator of a selected unmanned plane. It may additionally embody different details about the mission, payload, or different issues about that specific plane. However, after we say Distant ID, these are the actually basic issues that we’re speaking about.

Why does Distant ID matter?

Why does Remote ID matter?[04:26] Distant ID issues, initially, as a nationwide safety and public security situation. The thought behind Distant ID as a coverage particularly is that would supply stay drone monitoring in order that Public Security officers can know {that a} drone is in a selected location, determine who’s working that drone if they should determine an operator in an emergency. It additionally supplies a disincentive for unhealthy conduct and the misuse of drones with the flying of drones in locations the place they don’t seem to be allowed or in areas wherein it’d create a public hazard or hazard.

The regulators perceive and I believe a lot of the business understands that almost all drone operators, in the event that they do get into bother; in the event that they do fly someplace that they’re not presupposed to – over an occasion for instance – it’s normally as a result of they’re unaware and it’s not as a result of they’re working maliciously. That’s the explanation that Distant ID is so crucial.

Distant ID permits a de-escalation of that state of affairs rapidly by making a cellphone name reasonably than making an attempt to, for instance, disable a drone remotely, which will be tough and harmful.

Moreover, for nationwide safety public security, it does permit for the a lot sooner identification of drones that could be malicious drones; that aren’t utilizing any kind of Distant ID answer to supply that license plate. It’s like having a automobile that has painted over its license plate that instantly causes concern if it’s flying someplace it’s not presupposed to be.

A few photographs on this slide right here. The one on the backside is a fairly well-known picture. It’s the crashed drone onto the White Home garden from a few years in the past. A state of affairs wherein with the ability to monitor that drone would have been actually useful.

The one on the best is at a soccer recreation final 12 months, I consider, in Sussex wherein a drone flying over the stadium prompted a delay of play for about ten minutes whereas they tried to determine on find out how to do away with that drone and whether or not it was a hazard to the gamers or the followers. That is it is a very actual situation.

As well as, drone Distant ID is basically vital for business operators as a result of it is a vital gateway to what the FAA calls superior operations. The issues which can be usually cited as being vital will grow to be extra attainable. The FAA can have the power to control and handle would-be flights over folks particularly occasions in order that licensed plane which have the proper of security can fly over occasions and different plane will be rapidly recognized and a cellphone name will be made in order that these drones will depart the realm.

Safety of essential infrastructure. Energy crops and different issues like which can be typically cited as locations the place you don’t need drones and the FAA desires to have the ability to know the place these drones are, determine them, and ask them to depart.

Past visible line-of-sight operations. Crucial while you can’t readily determine the operator of a drone Distant ID will permit that to be performed safely and it will likely be one thing that the FAA feels that they’ll regulate as soon as Distant ID has an answer.

Some counter drone methods are enabled by Distant ID, so {that a} drone will be recognized after which some kind of mitigation – normally a cellphone name first after which one thing else. The opposite factor the Distant ID is predicted to allow are detect-and-avoid options, in an effort to know concerning the drones round you.

Drones ultimately could possibly be seen to air visitors management via a Distant ID answer.

In the end, what that actually leads into is unmanned visitors administration, which is a system and a scheme that NASA has been growing and is handing over to the FAA to supply for low-level business drones – normally under 400 toes as part of a Half 107 operation to be a part of an automatic air visitors administration system. That is actually vital for Distant ID.

Lastly, that is one thing that was stated just some days in the past by the CEO of LAX Airport: “Since April 2016 LAX has documented 205 studies of drone exercise close to the airport.” In fact, everyone knows possibly not each a type of was a drone however, even when half of them have been drones, it’s nonetheless troubling. However she reported: “… however was solely in a position to determine and phone the operator of the drone in a single occasion.”

This can be a nice instance of why Distant ID can be very useful to rapidly mitigate and clear up these conditions. That is actual sensible expertise with this downside.

Historical past and Standing of Distant ID

[09:10] Okay. I’m going to go over the historical past and standing of Distant ID. Distant ID is a scorching matter proper now as a result of it’s seen as this gateway to so many different issues that we want to be doing with business unmanned plane. We’ve had loads of exercise simply within the final couple of months.

Earlier than that, beginning in 2017, after Half 107 had been revealed, the FAA started serious about this and revealed a report on a few of their preliminary suggestions. They then put out, in late 2018, a request for data to business about potential Distant ID options. A few of the issues I’m going to indicate you subsequent will emerge from that.

Only recently, within the final couple of months on September 11th, ASTM revealed their Distant ID commonplace. They put it out to poll inside the ASTM F38 committee. That’s vital as a result of that’s a normal that airspace regulators are prone to reference and sure to make use of it both for example or in any other case ask unmanned plane operators to observe that commonplace. That’s in balloting now and may shut within the subsequent month or so.

There could in fact be revisions to that. It’s at present non-public. It’s simply inside the committee. Finally it will be revealed as a normal and might be accessible for regulators to make use of. I’m very enthusiastic about that.

I used to be not on the working group on that one however, as a member of the committee do evaluation that and do vote on that.

Additionally, on September 12, the FAA despatched a discover of public rulemaking to the Workplace of Administration and Price range (OMB) on the White Home. That’s the preliminary step and everybody’s enthusiastic about that.

For an precise rulemaking course of it needs to be reviewed first. Normally, that evaluation takes on common about 53 days. So, it’s anticipated to come back again to the FAA. There could also be revisions required which can prolong that point. The FAA says that round December 20th they assume that that could be revealed. That would actually transfer. However, they assume that that NPRM will come out publicly. That’s a vital step in the direction of an precise regulation.

The opposite factor that occurred just some days in the past right here in October is that the drone Advisory Committee, the DAC, which is made up of business leaders, made a number of suggestions round Distant ID. Considered one of them is that they really useful the ASTM F38 commonplace for Distant ID. It’s nice that they’re publicizing that, making it clear to the general public that that’ll be one thing that they’re going to take a look at.

Voluntary compliance with that Distant ID commonplace or the same commonplace with incentives is one thing that they really useful to the FAA. They really useful that the FAA begins to supply incentives now between the time {that a} public commonplace is revealed and an precise regulation comes into place for early adopters to start to make use of that Distant ID commonplace so as to add to their plane strategies of compliance.

The opposite factor they really useful was that the FAA, as quickly as attainable, go forward and publish what’s known as a MOPS, which is a minimal operational efficiency commonplace, round Distant ID. The FAA publishes loads of these and that turns into an official regulatory doc.

That discover of public rulemaking will come out as quickly as OMB is completed with it and the FAA has made any revisions. That’s the purpose which the general public can actually start to see intimately what the FAA is considering this. Hopefully, after that course of has been accomplished and there’s been public remark, in 2020 or possibly 2021, the FAA might be ready to publish a brand new regulation about the usage of Distant ID with unmanned plane.

That that’s the present standing so far as we all know.

Primary Idea of Operations

[13:00] This can be a diagram I’ll undergo in a short time after which I’ve acquired a bit bit extra detailed diagram. This got here from the FAA’s RFI doc. It’s a top level view of each a option to do networked Distant ID, which is certainly one of a few strategies of compliance. However, it additionally types the spine of an unmanned visitors administration system, which the FAA would use to assist to handle low-level unmanned plane.

You have got on the left the operators these are the person pilots or the businesses and airspace managers concerned with corporations performing business flights.

Within the center you could have your software program suppliers and your unmanned service suppliers who’re operating the spine servers that permit the person pilots to speak upwards.

These suppliers are anticipated to speak with one another on this scheme and supply details about the place plane are in relation to one another.

They’d additionally speak upwards to an FAA server to permit the FAA, as part of both air visitors management, security operations, or different issues to know the situation of an plane that’s being up to date via a chunk of software program speaking to a cloud server and speaking total with different plane.

ASTM F38 Distant ID and Monitoring Customary

[14:14] That is the diagram that has been revealed as a part of the dialogue of the ASTM requirements and it supplies a bit extra element. On the high right here we’ve got one option to comply, which is to really have a broadcast on a radio on the unmanned plane. This may be at present in the usual Bluetooth 4 or 5, or Wi-Fi that might speak to a consumer who has an app and an acceptable receiver on the right-hand aspect. We’ll discuss that a bit extra.

The opposite means that plane and operators may adjust to a Distant ID commonplace and let everybody know the place their plane is, what the ID is, after which, for licensed personnel, permit them to contact the operator can be utilizing a community connection. You’d have software program, typically an app on a cellphone or a pill or in any other case on a laptop computer or pc, that you simply’re utilizing to function your unmanned plane which might be updating right into a linked service that might then in the end make accessible the knowledge to licensed public security personnel, if wanted.

Then lastly on the backside of your non-equipped community participant can be for instance mannequin plane or others who’re in a state of affairs, however they don’t have a linked app that enables them to do stay updates. Nonetheless, they may in any other case register via an online portal, for instance, that they are going to be flying in an space at a selected time.

There’s actually three strategies of compliance right here and in the end the concept is that this data will be shared between software program service suppliers who’re enabling these flights after which shared with a central server sort of a spine that enables the FAA to share with Public Security and legislation enforcement the actual id and operator of a selected drone.

Perform Fundamentals of Distant ID

[16:03] We talked a bit bit about practical fundamentals normally that is going to be offered by an unmanned service provider. So, that software program vendor that’s offering drone enabling software program. That’s actually serving to with that business operation. It’s prone to be largely computerized. It’s prone to be on a cellular app, or if not computerized and on a cellular app then on an online portal. It is going to in all probability be dealt with within the background by the software program it may very well be guide if crucial and there could also be some differentiation. One of many solutions is that in sure airspaces it should be computerized. In different airspaces which can be much less delicate it could be a guide course of.

There could also be some differentiation in the way you comply primarily based on the place you could fly and what the sensitivity and security issues are for that space. It is going to require an FAA net service or a USS interchange of some sort and there are corporations like Google Wing and Amazon which can be engaged on these interchanges already. It is going to present knowledge sharing to that central database, so that may be offered when wanted to Public Security.

The connection strategies being mentioned embody Bluetooth 4 or 5, Wi-Fi, or community connection.

Present Challenges

[17:13] As I’m positive you’ll be able to think about, there are loads of current open questions on this each as an rising commonplace and a technical commonplace and as a regulation. I’ll undergo a few of these actually rapidly right here and loads of these don’t have solutions but.

The primary one is clearly broadcast versus community. Is community registration dependable and safe sufficient? Notably should you’re offering stay updates, does it require a steady mobile knowledge connection? For instance, clearly, it will should you’re actually going to supply stay networks. Is guide registration through an online portal a good suggestion?

In what areas would that make sense and in what airspaces wouldn’t it not? Broadcast and RF requirements have been mentioned extensively. There are vary limitations on the sorts of radios which have been prompt.

What’s the required vary for this to be efficient? And, in fact, how costly is it so as to add this? Is it sensible? Is it one thing that there might be completely different scales of compliance that might be acceptable for very small drones versus bigger drones that could be doing factor like supply.

Can Distant ID be used for air security and detect-and-avoid? Clearly, it’s meant primarily as an identification and actually a license plate model of answer. However, as a result of it’s repeatedly broadcasting, it may be used for detect-and-avoid to have the ability to determine an plane significantly in fact drones that aren’t allowed in any other case to broadcast utilizing an plane transponder – like an an ADS-B transponder, which small unmanned Half 107 plane usually are not allowed to do. Ought to it’s used for that? Can it’s used for that?

After which, clearly, operator privateness issues. Knowledge entry points. Who will get entry to the registration knowledge? When do they get entry? What functions are licensed? What would set off a question into this database? What kind of Public Security emergency would permit the triggering of entry to that data within the subject by somebody who’s acquired to decide doubtlessly on the spot?

These are questions which can be all nonetheless very a lot in dialogue proper now and because the FAA comes out with an precise regulation a few of these could also be answered.

Incentives for Voluntary Compliance

[19:24] I discussed earlier that the FAA and others have mentioned the concept of getting early adopters get some incentives to go forward and undertake. A bit of bit like transponder incentives have been put in place by the FAA largely within the type of rebates. Related discussions are taking place round Distant ID with the expectation that there might be a delay between a viable commonplace and a few viable applied sciences coming to market and an precise regulation being revealed.

A few of these incentives I’ve up right here. I’ll simply point out a pair.

Contract desire – significantly for federal contracts. Service suppliers flying drones for federal contracts which can be assembly greater degree of security might need a desire.

Waiver preferences. That’s fairly apparent and simple. It could be that getting a past visible line-of-sight waiver might be very a lot most well-liked that that service supplier have a Distant ID answer after they apply for that waiver.

Another issues like that that may start to permit early adopters to see an incentive to go forward and undertake this expertise.

Takeaways and Future Steps

[20:30] Some takeaways and a few future steps occurring with this expertise after which we’ll have just some minutes wherein I’ll attempt to handle questions.

Distant ID is basically essential to the way forward for the business UAS business. It is a vital stepping-stone into loads of the superior operations and is a particularly optimistic factor.

The present progress that we’ve seen over the past a number of months may be very optimistic for the business as a result of it’s starting to appear like we’re going to have a normal and we’re going to have a regulation in a time frame that we are able to start to foretell.

There’s probably a number of compliance strategies. I believe that’s vital to bear in mind.

Hopefully there might be compliance strategies which can be acceptable for very small unmanned plane all the best way as much as a lot bigger unmanned plane that may carry the tools to broadcast and to repeatedly replace right into a community mechanically their very own data.

It’s anticipated that loads of this may primarily be offered via a software program supplier who focuses on software program for business unmanned operations and it will likely be part of the suite of providers that can simply be offered and is a pathway to offering a full unmanned visitors administration system for america. That’s additionally thrilling.

It’s actually a gateway to all future laws and superior operations. There may be prone to be a interval of voluntary compliance. That’s I consider particular curiosity to early adopters.

You recognize, should you’re on this name that is clearly a subject that you simply’re fascinated by and in order that ought to be thrilling.

It’s attainable that the FAA will come out with a regulation and possibly a MOPS inside 12 to 24 months and that’s actually what the business is hoping for.

What’s being suggest by teams just like the DAC and the ASTM F38 commonplace is starting to doubtlessly permit. Very enthusiastic about all of that.

Questions & Solutions

Remote ID for Commercial UAS - Q&AI’m going to take a couple of minutes. I consider we’ve got just some minutes left for questions and solutions. I’ve offered some data down right here on the backside of the web page if you need to ship me an e mail with a query that I’m not in a position to reply on this name.

Additionally, we must always be capable of make these slides accessible should you contact us, or clearly, you’ll be able to contact the united statesCluster Initiative.

We actually respect the chance to have achieved this presentation at the moment and all of the assist that we get from Amanda and Harve and Josh and everybody at the united statesCluster Initiative.

I’m going to leap over right here into a few of our questions.

[23:18] Query 1: Is the ID for the drones going to be mounted or assignable on the time of the flight?

That’s an fascinating query. I don’t know the reply to it. I anticipate it will likely be mounted as a result of it should be a part of a registration that’s saved as part of the registration of the drone and it will likely be tied again to that registration. It’s probably it will likely be mounted, however it doesn’t it doesn’t imply that there won’t be some option to change it on the time of registration. That’s a element in the usual that possibly there’ll be one thing about that in there.

[24:05] Query 2: What’s the fee to Half 107 operators for Distant ID?

That’s an excellent query and given the place the business is at the moment it’s unimaginable to know precisely what the fee might be. I do know that there’s been an infinite quantity of dialogue about that within the business and ensuring that the fee is one thing that’s economically viable.

There’s no ensures. It’s an business offered answer. However, for Half 107 operators who’re already utilizing an app or a chunk of software program to handle their unmanned plane and have some kind of connection as much as a community – normally via a mobile connection. That is anticipated to be part of that course of.

For those who take a look at the prototypes that persons are asserting and the kind of software program work that’s being achieved, there’s positively a risk that it’ll merely be constructed into your app. Whether or not you’ll be charged by your app supplier to have that as an extra service is as much as the supplier.

I do hope that there might be competitors which can push that worth down in order that this might be one thing that everybody might be incentivized to supply as part of the answer with the intention to be aggressive and never push you to a competing product.

So, I believe there’s so long as that community answer stays a part of the image and the probably regulation, I believe that there’s a robust risk.

[25:32] Query 3: What consideration is taken concerning interruptions of management of the united statesin the air after figuring out that the drone is threatening?

That’s extra of a drone past visible line-of-sight regulation query than a Distant ID query.

Distant ID is just not anticipated to mitigate an out-of-control drone for instance. However, if the drone is broadcasting its location repeatedly, it does assist in a fly away drone or a lost-link state of affairs as a result of then extra people in plane or on the bottom will be capable of determine that there’s a drone there and be capable of monitor it. Even when it’s in a lost-link situation. So, that’s not one thing that this commonplace and this expertise by itself will mitigate, however it should assist to scale back danger within the case of a lack of management. That’s my understanding of what number of of those options would work.

That will get into bigger questions., like what’s required for past visible line-of-sight? This typically has to do with equipage, reliability, doubtlessly licensed elements, and all types of issues which can be being mentioned outdoors the Distant ID query.

[26:51] Query 4: Does Distant ID for UAV work like a Mode C transponder in an airplane?

I believe there’s a little little bit of analogy there. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have been prompt as ways in which generally legislation enforcement on the bottom may in a short time obtain that sign.

There are additionally different sorts of devoted broadcasts that could be created and used only for unmanned plane identification. I do know of some distributors who’re already growing and selling a few of their very own requirements. You’d have a receiver from them and be capable of obtain a longer-range sign than you may get with Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, which is clearly one of many massive issues with these two applied sciences.

It could not shock me if there are revisions to the requirements and revisions to the laws over time that do acknowledge specialised radio applied sciences which have a lot wider vary and higher protection. I believe that’s one of many main issues that everyone is considering as they take a look at these laws.

So, the reply is sure. It ought to work like a transponder. I do assume that there’s going to need to be new applied sciences that grow to be standardized and generally accepted by business for that to occur.

Thanks all very a lot to your time and thank the united statesCluster Initiative once more for the chance to make this presentation.

Amanda: Thanks very a lot Kraettli. We respect it.

Associated Sources:

 

Fast hyperlinks – “Leap to” video part (hyperlinks open in numerous tab – instances denote part begin):

  • 03:21 – What’s Distant ID?
  • 04:26 – Why does Distant ID matter?
  • 09:10 – Historical past and Standing of Distant ID
  • 13:00 – Primary Idea of Operations
  • 14:14 – ASTM F38 Distant ID and Monitoring Customary
  • 16:03 – Perform Fundamentals of Distant ID
  • 17:13 – Present Challenges
  • 19:24 – Incentives for Voluntary Compliance
  • 20:30 – Takeaways and Future Steps
  • 23:18 – Q&A – Query: Is the ID for the drones going to mounted or assignable on the time of the flight?
  • 24:05 – Q&A – Query: What’s the price to Half 107 operators for Distant ID?
  • 25:32 – Q&A – Query: What issues are taken concerning interruptions of management of the united statesin the air after figuring out that the drone is threatening?

For extra movies from Vigilant Aerospace Methods, go to www.VigilantAerospace.com/videos.

 

About the united statesCluster Initiative

The usCluster Initiative for Oklahoma and Kansas is a collaboration funded by the U.S. Small Enterprise Administration and managed by Improvement Capital Networks (DCN), with assist from the Oklahoma UAS Council and the Oklahoma Division of Commerce. It’s targeted on accelerating the expansion of the Unmanned Aerial System business within the U.S. by enabling established corporations and rising entrepreneurs in Oklahoma and Kansas to attach, work collectively, and achieve entry to nationwide expertise, international capital, superior enterprise fashions and international markets. For extra data, go to UAScluster.com.

View extra webinars from the united statesCluster Initiative right here: www.UAScluster.com/pages/webinars.html





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